Inside BMW Li-ion batteries

It looks basically like any other battery you’ve changed in a BMW but be careful to not treat it the same!

BMW Lithium-Ion batteries have been around for more than 6 years now. You can find them on their M3, M4, and M5s. However, you cannot charge nor dispose of them like a normal or even AGM battery. There were initially 2 different types known as the 69AMP for F80, F82, and F83 chassis and the 70AMP for the F90. What’s interesting is that these are not compatible and about half the weight. If they are short-circuited or undercharged, they may go to an open circuit state until it is reset. The price is around $1,800 – $1,900 MSRP.

What you should know is that BMW has a special battery charger for their batteries because inside it’s crazy-special. Inside some models will be 4 large battery cells along with 2 modules that measure and regulate the charge.

We now carry the correct 8-step automatic charger for these and other models including lead-acid and AGM types. See part number 61432408594.

Headlight Diagnostics

One of the questions All Euro receives most about headlights is proper programming. If you don’t have the proper tool/software version, it can be a nightmare for any technician. More than that, we all know that headlights are only going to become increasingly technologically designed (which means more sophisticated diagnosing/programming for the service industry). That’s why we have asked our friends from Valeo to help!

If you don’t already know about this research resource for VAG diagnosis from Ross-Tech, take a look the next time you are programming a VW or Audi headlight. You can look up information using the make and model (see the link highlighted in yellow on the photo shown below) to find “Diagnostic Procedures”. Please note that some options do not have supplement information, as this is an experimental wiki.

To search for diagnostic procedures based on make and model, click on the link highlighted in yellow in the photo above.


Another diagnosing option if you have access to VCDS software! Follow these prompts to find what you are looking for. Ross-Tech also provides printable manuals which are available for download.

Here are the different scenarios for replacement using VCDS access:

If you only change the headlamp:  no reset

If you change the headlamp and the LCM:
– same LCM version: no reset
– another ( version B and originally you have the A ): reset

If you upgrade all: reset
For the reset, you need a diagnostic tool with the VCDS access 


then click on “program option”


Only then you can activate other “functions” and follow all the steps to reset the system.

All European aims to offer the resources and tools for any technician looking to avoid the high dealership costs of resetting headlight systems. While this is a situational occurance, it’s always best to do a little digging before sending that car off to the dealer. Check out Ross-Tech Wiki page next time your shop encounters a programming issue!

The Stabiliser – an underrated component

The stabiliser bar is a component of the suspension and connects the wheel suspension of an axle with the body structure. Many cars are equipped with a stabiliser bar on the front axle and some of them with one on the rear axle as well. Stabiliser bars have been installed in passenger cars for many decades and have remained practically unchanged in this time. The stabiliser bar (or anti-roll bar) is little known to many motorists, although this component plays a major role in ensuring a safe and comfortable journey. The simple reason: Without a stabiliser bar, vehicles would overturn in corners and driving comfort would be drastically reduced when driving straight ahead as well. As a rule, even knocking noises from the suspension are attributable to a fault in the stabiliser bar area. Failure of or damage to the stabiliser bar is mostly inexpensive. This is due to the relatively low material costs and straightforward installation. But beware: If the stabiliser bar is damaged, the vehicle should not be moved. Failure increases the risk of the rolling motion of the body structure getting out of control and the vehicle overturning.

Design and Function

The stabiliser system also consists of other components, e.g. stabiliser links and stabiliser bearings. The stabiliser bar is mostly mounted on a subframe and in rubber bearings. The stabiliser links connect the stabiliser bar to the suspension struts or, alternatively, to the control arms. Special ball joints on the stabiliser links ensure the necessary freedom of movement to allow the stabiliser bar to do its job flawlessly. When a wheel deflects, the torsion of the stabiliser bar ensures that the other wheel is also raised and likewise lowered upon rebound. This prevents excessive rolling (lateral tilting) of the body when cornering. If the two wheels deflect simultaneously, the stabiliser bar does not activate.

Failure Symptoms

In the event of failure or damage to the system, loud knocking noises frequently occur in the suspension when driving over bumps or potholes. These are mostly caused by worn bushes or defective ball joints on the stabiliser links. In the case of worn bushes, an unintended play arises between the bush and stabiliser bar, and the stabiliser bar begins to rattle in the bushes on deflection and rebound. A frequently installed type of stabiliser link features ball joints that are protected by a rubber boot from spray water and external influences. They are also packed with grease to make movement as frictionless as possible. Every now and then, the rubber boot or the associated seal is damaged. This allows water to enter and provides for unnaturally high wear. The consequence: too much play in the joint, which leads to the aforementioned noises. When replacing the stabiliser link, it must always be ensured that the correct torque is applied during installation. Otherwise the ball joint can be damaged, wear prematurely or even break off.

Used with permission by febi-bilstein.

From Febi Bilstein – Underestimated, but Important: The Anti Roll Bar

Anti Roll Bar

The anti roll bar is a component of the chassis and connects the wheel suspension of an axle with the body structure. Many cars have an anti roll bar on the front axle, some of them also have them on the rear axle.

Anti roll bars have been used in passenger cars for decades and have been a virtually unchanged component ever since. Many motorists are unaware of the anti roll bar, although the replacement part makes an important contribution to safety and comfortable driving. The simple reason: without the anti roll bar, vehicles would tip over in a curve and driving straight ahead would be extremely uncomfortable. As a rule, even the rumbling noises from the chassis can be attributed to a defect in the area of the anti roll bar.

A failure of or damage to the anti roll bar is usually not expensive. This is attributable to the relatively low material costs and simple installation. But beware: if the anti roll bar is damaged, the vehicle should no longer be driven. The failure increases the risk that the rolling movements of the superstructure get out of control and the vehicle overturns.

Design and Function of the Anti Roll Bar

The anti roll bar includes other system components, e.g. coupling rod and anti roll bar bush. The anti roll bar is usually fitted to a subframe and mounted in rubber bearings. Double rods connect the anti roll bar to the suspension struts or alternatively to the control arms. Special ball joints on the coupling rods provide the necessary freedom of movement so the anti roll bar can perform its work flawlessly.

When one wheel is deflected, the torsion of the anti roll bar ensures that the other wheel is also raised and lowered when it is lowered. This prevents the body from swaying excessively (tilting sideways) when cornering. If both wheels enter simultaneously, the anti roll bar does not take action.

Symptoms of Failure

If the system fails or is damaged, strong rumbling noises often occur in the chassis when driving over bumps or potholes. In most cases, these are due to worn out bearings or defective ball joints of the coupling rods. If the bearings are worn out, there may be an unexpected play between the bearing and the anti roll bar. The anti roll bar may begin to rattle in the bearings during compression and deflection.

A very common type of coupling rod is equipped with ball joints which are protected against spray and external factors through a rubber boot. Furthermore, they contain a grease filling in order to allow for a smooth movement. From time to time, the rubber boots or the associated seals are damaged. As a result, water can penetrate and cause an unnaturally high level of wear.

The result: too much play in the joint leads to the sounds described above. The correct torque must be observed when mounting the coupling rod. Otherwise, the ball joint may be damaged and may wear out prematurely or even break off.

Article By Mary VerDuin
Dated April 29, 2020
Used with permission by Febi Bilstein

Chassis Mounts: For More Comfort and Better Control

Axle Beam Mount

Axle Beam Mounting

The design of vehicles is constantly evolving. The desire for non-intrusive suspension systems that do not impact the interior of the vehicle has made it necessary to use a suspension sub-frame. These sub-frames are made of tubular steel or aluminum tubes and are mounted to the vehicle body with rubber-metal bushes.

Strut Top Mounts

The suspension strut mounting consists of a composite rubber bush mounted on the top of the damper and connected to the vehicle’s chassis. It is an integral part of the suspension strut assembly. Strut mountings can also be equipped with a bearing or bearing plate, which allows the strut to rotate with the steered wheels.

Control Arm Bush/Hydro Bushing

The elastomeric materials used in the production of rubber-metal parts are matched precisely to the technical requirements and loads of their specific fitting position. Despite all of this, passive rubber-metal components cannot absorb all of the vibrations within the chassis. As a result, hydraulically dampening elastomeric bearing – “Hydromounts” – were developed, which enable the isolating and dampening of vibrations.

Anti-Roll Bar Bushes

Anti-Roll Bar Bushes

The anti-roll bar is mounted onto the vehicle’s sub-frame or chassis by means of two bushes. The positive connection of the bonded rubber bushes prevents relative movements between the anti-roll bar and the bonded rubber bush. The rotational movements of the anti-roll bar are absorbed in the mounting while the vehicle is being driven on a variety of road surfaces. This achieves a high degree of efficiency to reduce NVH (Noise, Vibrations, and Harshness) and increases driver comfort.

Chassis mounts – like the strut support bearing – should have good elastomeric properties

Article By Mary VerDuin
Dated February 28, 2020
Used with permission by Febi Bilstein

Your brights are on!

We all know how distracting it can be when on-coming motorists have their brights on at night. Fortunately, Valeo has engineered a solution using their dynamic beam technology with help from cameras and sensors to assist in distributing light for safety and comfort. Check out this video which dives into how these systems work and why it’s important to continue these advances for the best night-time driving experience possible!

You can shop Valeo lighting by clicking the link below:,%20Lighting%20and%20Body


The system of a chain, to link the camshaft to the crankshaft and drive other components to operate the engine, has been proven for many years by various vehicle manufacturers, particularly BMW. However, some engines are well known for common faults, the N47 engine, in particular, is one of them.
In this article, we investigate an example fitted to a BMW E61 520d, that had covered 180,000km and had an engine that suddenly stopped, due to a suspected timing chain failure.
The timing chain is located at the rear of the engine, close to the transmission and it is, therefore, necessary to remove the engine, to gain access to investigate the problem.
With the engine removed, the rocker cover was taken off to view any damage. The camshaft chain was not visible and after inspection, it was located at the bottom of the timing chain housing, and also five rocker arms were broken.
The camshaft support had sustained a significant fracture, which shows that a significant torsional force has been absorbed by the engine timing components. (Fig 1)

Fig. 1

With the crankshaft locked in position, the clutch, flywheel, and sump were removed for inspection.
After the removal of the timing chain housing, further damage was revealed. The upper chain had one broken link, the high-pressure fuel pump sprocket had broken teeth and the chain guide was also broken. (Fig 2)

Fig. 2

This is a typical example of a chain failure on the N47 engine.
It was necessary to carry out a thorough inspection of the engine, to check for any other damage. In this case, the intake camshaft did not rotate freely, it was twisted and did not fit properly on the bearings, and a replacement was required.
Considering the damage already identified, it was necessary to check if the intake and exhaust valves had not collided with the pistons.
The cylinder head was removed and the valves were checked, no problems were found, the valves had not come into contact with the pistons.
After a thorough inspection of the engine, all damaged parts were assessed for replacement.
When replacing a timing chain it is vital that all the components of the timing chain are replaced without any exception, failure to replace certain components can lead to serious consequences in engine operation. The Febi timing chain kit 102040 for this engine has all the necessary parts for repair. The kit includes upper and lower chains, chain guides, tensioners, and sprockets for the fuel injection pump and camshafts, and also the oil nozzle for the lower chain.
This kit corresponds to the latest technical developments necessary to prevent the chain from breaking again. It has an upgraded version of the chain guides and superior quality chains treated with a TRITAN ® coating. This coating improves friction properties to reduce wear and optimizes engine fuel consumption.
The cylinder head was prepared for reassembly with new camshaft support, camshaft, and new rocker arms (Febi 30132). Note: the tightening of the bracket bolts must not exceed 20Nm and it is important to ensure that the camshaft bearings are lubricated before installation. The cylinder head was then reassembled and fitted to the engine block, using new bolts (Febi 39805).

Then the timing of the camshafts and crankshaft was checked, this is essential for correct engine operation. The camshaft pinions have timing marks, which must be placed opposite each other parallel to the cylinder head. (Fig 3) The crankshaft is fixed by means of a pin in the flywheel, which is removed, we recommend that it be temporarily reassembled to check the locking.

Fig. 3

First, the lower chain was installed with the new fuel injection pump sprocket, and then the chain guides attached with their respective bolts.
The hydraulic tensioner was installed ensuring all contact surfaces with the engine block were clean before assembly. The lower chain and oil pump sprocket was installed, noting the direction of assembly.
The upper chain was installed from the injection pump sprocket to the sprocket of the intake camshaft. The upper chain guide can then be assembled, applying thread lock to the threads to ensure that they will not loosen during operation.
Once all the chains had been installed, the locking pin was removed from the hydraulic tensioner to the lower chain.
With all chains in place and the flywheel locked in position, the alignment was checked off the AAC markings on the cylinder head. As everything was correct, the camshaft sprocket was tightened with the three retaining bolts. If the alignment is not correct it can be corrected by turning the exhaust camshaft with a 32 mm spanner. Then check the fuel injection pump sprocket for the correct tightness.
The assembly of the Febi 102040 timing chain kit was complete, the engine was turned over by hand for several revolutions to check that the engine was turning freely. (Fig 4) The timing chain housing was reassembled with its new seal and the new crankshaft seal.

Fig. 4

Once the valve timing had been reassembled, all other parts were reassembled before refitting the engine back into the engine compartment.
With the engine refitted, the oil filter was replaced and the engine was filled with the correct grade of oil. Regular engine oil and filter changes are vital for the long operation of all engine components, especially the timing chain as it relies on constant lubrication.
With the engine installed and the cooling system filled with fresh coolant, the engine was started and checked for leaks and correct operation.
The vehicle was road tested to check its performance, so that it could give many more miles of driving pleasure.

You can shop Febi Bilstein engine timing components here at

Posted with permission from Febi Bilstein

Free Training Opportunity

After completing this training, the participant will be able to:

• List the principals of a fluid clutch and torque converter

• Describe the 3 components that are used in a torque converter

• Explain the hydro dynamic fluid flow, torque multiplication stage and coupling stage

• Describe the lock up clutch operation and regulation

• Explain common failures and malfunctions in torque converters and lock up systems

Let’s Talk About…

THIS EDITION: Definition of OEM

What does “OEM” mean?

“Let’s Talk About” is a publication series written by All Euro’s Vice President, Luke. Each installment is a discussion piece that includes professional experience, extensive auto knowledge, and technical information. All in the pursuit of expanding your knowledge and understanding of automotive repair. Download the .pdf file below to read on!

Free Online Training Opportunity understands these trying times have left plenty of techs and counter sales people with some free time. Fortunately, our supplier NGK/NTK has kindly provided free access to their NGK Tech Portal. Techs and service writers at any level can access valuable training.

The NGK Tech Portal contains training which discuss the function of various ignition parts and sensors. There is a quick 5 question quiz for each one. Each person will create their own user name and password.

We sincerely hope that this information and access to these training opportunities might help us collectively come out of these challenging times with some new knowledge and sales tools to help move everyone forward. Stay safe and send us a message if there are questions.

A Message from About Our Response to COVID-19 is committed to providing European auto parts to first responders, healthcare professionals, automotive repair shops and people who rely on their vehicles to get to the pharmacy, grocery store health centers, etc.
As the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) continues to spread, the health, safety, and well-being of customers and employees are our utmost concern. We will continue to closely follow the guidance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) as we promote health and safety while still serving the essential needs of our communities.

We have taken the following actions, among others, to promote the health and safety of employees and customers:
• We have sent home all employees who can work from home remotely.
• Reduced non-essential on-premise staff hours.
• Supplying employees with gloves and insist they maintain appropriate social distancing at all times, in or out of the building.
• Performing dis-infecting wipe downs of common areas every 2 hours or more.
• Urging employees to stay home and seek immediate medical attention if they are or become sick, for any reason at all.
• Additionally, we are encouraging the use of our 24/7 outside pick up lockers to promote social distancing.
• For customers that prefer delivery, you have more choices than ever before including multiple same day delivery options in the quad county area.

Top 10 Brake Pulsation Questions

According to GM in technical bulletin #00-05-22-002 to its dealers, GM says:
“Brake rotors should only be turned when one of the following rotor surface conditions exist: severe scoring with depth in excess of 1.5 mm or 0.060 inch, pulsation from excessive lateral runout of more than .080 mm or .003 inch, thickness variation in excess of 0.025 mm or 0.001 inch, or excessive corrosion on rotor braking surfaces.”
Lug nut torque is also extremely important. Under-torquing only a single lug nut may create as much as 0.003-inch of lateral runout in a rotor!
0 .0015 inch or less of lateral runout is needed on the rotors to prevent pedal pulsation. If runout is excessive, try indexing the rotor on the hub to see if a change in position helps. Tapered steel shims are also available, or use an on-the-car lathe to cut the rotors in place.
  1. What causes runout?
    Rotor runout can be caused by several things: variations in manufacturing tolerances, sloppy resurfacing procedures, a buildup of rust and corrosion between the rotor, hub and wheel, and uneven torque on the lug nuts.

  2. What else can cause pulsation problems besides the rotors?
    Loose wheel bearings will cause the rotor to tilt in the caliper when a load or side thrust is placed on the bearings. Disc brake pistons require lots of fluid volume and pressure to push the pad against the rotor. If loosely adjusted wheel bearings force the pistons into the caliper, the result will be a low or spongy brake pedal.

  3. What exactly is “pulsation” and how does it relate to “warping?”
    If a vehicle equipped with floating or sliding calipers has a slider problem which prevents the caliper housing from moving, runout can cause pulsation. The caliper piston will move in and out as the rotor rotates resulting in fluid movement and pedal pulsation. Likewise, fixed caliper vehicles are sensitive to runout induced pedal pulsations. Fixed calipers have pistons on both sides of the rotor due to the stationary caliper housing. Excessive runout will cause piston movement and can result in pedal pulsation due to the runout.

  4. What else can cause customers to think their rotors are warped?
    Brake roughness is the other component to the equation and it is often misinterpreted and misdiagnosed problem. At the root of brake roughness is a characteristic called Brake Torque Variation (BTV). This can be determined by measuring torque multiple times within one wheel revolution. The brake torque variation is the maximum torque measured within one revolution subtracting the minimum measured.
    If BTV is excessive, the vehicle will start to transmit the BTV back to the driver and generate a comeback. The symptoms are pulsation in the pedal.

  5. What is Disc Thickness Variation?
    People generally equate a high runout value with “warping.” In reality, runout by itself is not a direct or sole generator of pulsation. The characteristic that most directly generates roughness is actually Disc Thickness Variation (DTV). This measurement is the result of measuring the thickness of the rotor surface at multiple spots around the rotor.
    The DTV is the largest (thickest spot) minus the smallest (thinnest spot) of the rotor. This action of thick and thin spots passing through the caliper generates the brake torque variation. When the thick part of the rotor is forcing itself through the caliper, the torque of the brake and the pressure in the caliper rise. When the thin spot passes through, the torque drops and pressure drops. Very small amounts of DTV can create a significant problem. Today, new vehicles are typically built with a thickness variation of less than 0.00078”. Thickness variations in excess of 15 microns (0.00059”) can easily generate driver complaints.
    Always use a dial indicator to verify the amount of runout present in a rotor and hub assembly, both before and after the rotors have been machined. This must be performed even if you are using an on-the-car lathe. By measuring the rotor on the hub, you can also check for play in the wheel bearings, corrosion on the mounting surface and other possible errors. Even if you are putting new rotors on a vehicle, runout should be checked. It doesn’t take much, only about .002 inches on some vehicles, to cause a noticeable pulsation. Also, if you are using a bench lathe, the dial indicator can be used to check to see if you have mounted the rotor or drum properly to the lathe.

  6. “Do I have to measure the runout for every brake job? I don’t have the time!”
    The bigger question is, “Do you have time for comebacks?” A dial gauge is used to measure runout in the rotor and hub assembly.
    The dial gauge is a very robust piece of equipment that can last a lifetime. It is also a good idea to invest in a good magnetic base or vise-grip handle that can be setup quickly.

  7. I drove the vehicle after the brake repair and there was no pulsation problem. What caused the customer to comeback after a few thousand miles with a pulsation problem? Is their braking technique at fault?
    Ninety-eight percent of the time, pulsation complaints are not the fault of the driver. The cause of the DTV/Runout and resulting pulsation is a product of the interaction of the rotor and pads over time and how the caliper interprets the runout. But, the main reason why the customer is back is that the runout was not measured in the hub.
    The vehicles most susceptible to reoccurring pulsation are those that use unitized bearings. Unitized bearings are preloaded and have zero play. No wheel bearing play results in the runout being “seen” by the brake pads with every revolution of the rotor. The resulting high and low spots scrape the brake pads with every revolution of the rotor. This scraping occurs during not only during braking, but also non-braking.
    The long-term result of this scraping is the DTV. Pedal pulsation is the symptom of excessive DTV. The alternating thick and thin spots of the rotor cause the caliper piston to move in and out as the brakes are applied. The caliper piston moves out on the thin spots and in on the thin spots. The piston movement causes brake fluid to move in the hydraulic system and results in corresponding brake pedal movement in the form of a high-speed pedal pulsation.

  8. There is not any runout in the rotor, but the customer is still complaining of a pulsation problem. What could it be the cause?
    The problem might not be the brake rotors, but the pads. If the brake system is used to the intended limits and the brake pads go beyond their operational temperature limit they will deposit brake pad material unevenly on the brake rotor. Pad material build up creates uneven rotor thickness, which gives you the sensation of a “warped” brake rotor.
    Try switching to a more robust brake pad, and clean up the rotors with a light pass on the lathe.

  9. Volcanic Bearings?
    Many bearings will actually have a machined step in the region the wheel studs are installed. This masks the localized “volcanoing” that occurs in the material around the stud. This micron (1 micron = .000039”) level volcanoing will distort the rotor when the clamp load of the wheel is applied.

  10. Will a non-directional finish reduce the chance of a comeback for pulsation problem?
    In theory, a non-directional finish will help to burnish the brake pads more effectively. For some friction materials, the non-directional finish will help to deposit a thin layer of friction material on the rotor’s surfaces.

Cheap Blown Head Gasket Test

What you need:

  • Plastic wrap
  • Rubber band


  1. Place plastic wrap over top of radiator cap opening. Push in slightly, leave a 1-2 inch “U” shape in the plastic.
  2. Wrap rubber band around the plastic and seal it to the radiator neck. Pinch the overflow hose to prevent air leaks.
  3. Disable the ignition system or have someone start the engine for a few seconds.
  4. If the slack you pushed into the plastic wrap pops up, then you more likely have a blown head gasket or cracked head.

Motor Oil Specs

Let’s Talk About…

“Let’s Talk About” is a publication series written by All Euro’s Vice President, Luke. Each installment is a discussion piece that includes professional experience, extensive auto knowledge, and technical information. All in the pursuit of expanding your knowledge and understanding of automotive repair. Read on!

This edition: Motor Oil Specs

Window Regulators

Let’s Talk About…

“Let’s Talk About” is a publication series written by All Euro’s Vice President, Luke. Each installment is a discussion piece that includes professional experience, extensive auto knowledge, and technical information. All in the pursuit of expanding your knowledge and understanding of automotive repair. Read on!

This edition: Window Regulators

Local Training Opportunity Coming Soon!

All European Auto Supply would like to inform you of an upcoming training opportunity in the Metro Detroit area. Interested in boosting your knowledge of 8-speed transmissions? Consider this upcoming training class from an ASE Certified Trainer from ZF Aftermarket.
More details to come.

Problems and Solutions for Everyday Work on the ZF 8HP

This training will take a look at the common problems that technicians encounter everyday in their daily work on the ZF 8HP transmission. ZF Technical Trainer will provide solutions and tips to aid technicians on the daily.

Date: July 11, 2020
Location: Northville, MI



See vehicle applications here:

Tips for Avoiding Brake Problems

The following are some tips and instructions taken from various brake engineers, manufacturers, and installers over the years to help avoid any issues with brakes. For a free guide to prevent and diagnose brake problems just ask a counterman.

The 5 Easiest Ways to Avoid Brake Pulsation:

  1. Clean the hub and rotor mating surfaces until spotless
  2. Use torque wrench by hand to vehicle spec
  3. ALWAYS lube brake pad backing plates, ears, slides, and springs with Plastilube (never use metallic anti-seize on abs cars)
  4. Always “bed” the pads according to pad specs during your test drive
  5. Instruct the daily driver to avoid excessive braking for first 500 miles.

How should I “treat” the pads before installing?

To prevent squealing always lubricate the brake pads backing plate, piston crown, tabs, ears, slides, springs and any metal to metal surface (except friction surfaces) with Plastilube. Do not use anti-seize on cars with abs.

Why should I “Bed or Break in” every brake job?

“Brake pad transfer” is the exchange of glue/binding agents in the friction material which can, when heated and left in contact with the rotor, leave enough deposit to feel like warped rotors. Truly warped rotors are extremely rare. The transfer of binding agents will leave a thick spot on the rotor which feels like warped rotors.

“Bedding” pads by performing specific braking maneuvers is just as important as cleaning the rotor to hub mating surfaces to prevent pulsating rotors and squealing pads.

What is the proper bedding procedure?

If you don’t have factory info from the vehicle manufacturer, we recommend following the procedure from Ate as a generally accepted policy. See below—

  1. Apply light pressure to brakes at approximately 60 mph while slowing to 30 mph ten times. Then allow to cool for 2 minutes driving constant speeds.
  2. Next, apply light pressure to slow from 60 mph to 10 mph five more times. Let cool for 2 minutes.
  3. Repeat Step 1. Then allow to cool before coming to complete stop (Try not to come to complete stop if possible or material transfer may occur which is the main cause for pulsating brakes).

Ate recommends brake pad bedding procedure while safely following all traffic laws.

The proper 10-minute test drive can save you from doing the brakes twice.

BMW’s With Self Adjusting Clutches

Tool is required when installing BMW self adjusting type clutches. Many newer BMW and Audi/VW models come with a self adjusting clutch. This type clutch has a black shipping plate locking the pressure plate fingers until the pressure plate has been aligned and bolted into place to spec. Any removing of the shipping plate before then will render the clutch plate useless and voids the warranty. The proper tool must be used to install this style clutch and are usually available under tool number ct1011 or ct1012.