Your brights are on!

We all know how distracting it can be when on-coming motorists have their brights on at night. Fortunately, Valeo has engineered a solution using their dynamic beam technology with help from cameras and sensors to assist in distributing light for safety and comfort. Check out this video which dives into how these systems work and why it’s important to continue these advances for the best night-time driving experience possible!

You can shop Valeo lighting by clicking the link below:,%20Lighting%20and%20Body


The system of a chain, to link the camshaft to the crankshaft and drive other components to operate the engine, has been proven for many years by various vehicle manufacturers, particularly BMW. However, some engines are well known for common faults, the N47 engine, in particular, is one of them.
In this article, we investigate an example fitted to a BMW E61 520d, that had covered 180,000km and had an engine that suddenly stopped, due to a suspected timing chain failure.
The timing chain is located at the rear of the engine, close to the transmission and it is, therefore, necessary to remove the engine, to gain access to investigate the problem.
With the engine removed, the rocker cover was taken off to view any damage. The camshaft chain was not visible and after inspection, it was located at the bottom of the timing chain housing, and also five rocker arms were broken.
The camshaft support had sustained a significant fracture, which shows that a significant torsional force has been absorbed by the engine timing components. (Fig 1)

Fig. 1

With the crankshaft locked in position, the clutch, flywheel, and sump were removed for inspection.
After the removal of the timing chain housing, further damage was revealed. The upper chain had one broken link, the high-pressure fuel pump sprocket had broken teeth and the chain guide was also broken. (Fig 2)

Fig. 2

This is a typical example of a chain failure on the N47 engine.
It was necessary to carry out a thorough inspection of the engine, to check for any other damage. In this case, the intake camshaft did not rotate freely, it was twisted and did not fit properly on the bearings, and a replacement was required.
Considering the damage already identified, it was necessary to check if the intake and exhaust valves had not collided with the pistons.
The cylinder head was removed and the valves were checked, no problems were found, the valves had not come into contact with the pistons.
After a thorough inspection of the engine, all damaged parts were assessed for replacement.
When replacing a timing chain it is vital that all the components of the timing chain are replaced without any exception, failure to replace certain components can lead to serious consequences in engine operation. The Febi timing chain kit 102040 for this engine has all the necessary parts for repair. The kit includes upper and lower chains, chain guides, tensioners, and sprockets for the fuel injection pump and camshafts, and also the oil nozzle for the lower chain.
This kit corresponds to the latest technical developments necessary to prevent the chain from breaking again. It has an upgraded version of the chain guides and superior quality chains treated with a TRITAN ® coating. This coating improves friction properties to reduce wear and optimizes engine fuel consumption.
The cylinder head was prepared for reassembly with new camshaft support, camshaft, and new rocker arms (Febi 30132). Note: the tightening of the bracket bolts must not exceed 20Nm and it is important to ensure that the camshaft bearings are lubricated before installation. The cylinder head was then reassembled and fitted to the engine block, using new bolts (Febi 39805).

Then the timing of the camshafts and crankshaft was checked, this is essential for correct engine operation. The camshaft pinions have timing marks, which must be placed opposite each other parallel to the cylinder head. (Fig 3) The crankshaft is fixed by means of a pin in the flywheel, which is removed, we recommend that it be temporarily reassembled to check the locking.

Fig. 3

First, the lower chain was installed with the new fuel injection pump sprocket, and then the chain guides attached with their respective bolts.
The hydraulic tensioner was installed ensuring all contact surfaces with the engine block were clean before assembly. The lower chain and oil pump sprocket was installed, noting the direction of assembly.
The upper chain was installed from the injection pump sprocket to the sprocket of the intake camshaft. The upper chain guide can then be assembled, applying thread lock to the threads to ensure that they will not loosen during operation.
Once all the chains had been installed, the locking pin was removed from the hydraulic tensioner to the lower chain.
With all chains in place and the flywheel locked in position, the alignment was checked off the AAC markings on the cylinder head. As everything was correct, the camshaft sprocket was tightened with the three retaining bolts. If the alignment is not correct it can be corrected by turning the exhaust camshaft with a 32 mm spanner. Then check the fuel injection pump sprocket for the correct tightness.
The assembly of the Febi 102040 timing chain kit was complete, the engine was turned over by hand for several revolutions to check that the engine was turning freely. (Fig 4) The timing chain housing was reassembled with its new seal and the new crankshaft seal.

Fig. 4

Once the valve timing had been reassembled, all other parts were reassembled before refitting the engine back into the engine compartment.
With the engine refitted, the oil filter was replaced and the engine was filled with the correct grade of oil. Regular engine oil and filter changes are vital for the long operation of all engine components, especially the timing chain as it relies on constant lubrication.
With the engine installed and the cooling system filled with fresh coolant, the engine was started and checked for leaks and correct operation.
The vehicle was road tested to check its performance, so that it could give many more miles of driving pleasure.

You can shop Febi Bilstein engine timing components here at

Posted with permission from Febi Bilstein

Free Training Opportunity

After completing this training, the participant will be able to:

• List the principals of a fluid clutch and torque converter

• Describe the 3 components that are used in a torque converter

• Explain the hydro dynamic fluid flow, torque multiplication stage and coupling stage

• Describe the lock up clutch operation and regulation

• Explain common failures and malfunctions in torque converters and lock up systems

Let’s Talk About…

THIS EDITION: Definition of OEM

What does “OEM” mean?

“Let’s Talk About” is a publication series written by All Euro’s Vice President, Luke. Each installment is a discussion piece that includes professional experience, extensive auto knowledge, and technical information. All in the pursuit of expanding your knowledge and understanding of automotive repair. Download the .pdf file below to read on!

Free Online Training Opportunity understands these trying times have left plenty of techs and counter sales people with some free time. Fortunately, our supplier NGK/NTK has kindly provided free access to their NGK Tech Portal. Techs and service writers at any level can access valuable training.

The NGK Tech Portal contains training which discuss the function of various ignition parts and sensors. There is a quick 5 question quiz for each one. Each person will create their own user name and password.

We sincerely hope that this information and access to these training opportunities might help us collectively come out of these challenging times with some new knowledge and sales tools to help move everyone forward. Stay safe and send us a message if there are questions.

A Message from About Our Response to COVID-19 is committed to providing European auto parts to first responders, healthcare professionals, automotive repair shops and people who rely on their vehicles to get to the pharmacy, grocery store health centers, etc.
As the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) continues to spread, the health, safety, and well-being of customers and employees are our utmost concern. We will continue to closely follow the guidance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) as we promote health and safety while still serving the essential needs of our communities.

We have taken the following actions, among others, to promote the health and safety of employees and customers:
• We have sent home all employees who can work from home remotely.
• Reduced non-essential on-premise staff hours.
• Supplying employees with gloves and insist they maintain appropriate social distancing at all times, in or out of the building.
• Performing dis-infecting wipe downs of common areas every 2 hours or more.
• Urging employees to stay home and seek immediate medical attention if they are or become sick, for any reason at all.
• Additionally, we are encouraging the use of our 24/7 outside pick up lockers to promote social distancing.
• For customers that prefer delivery, you have more choices than ever before including multiple same day delivery options in the quad county area.

Top 10 Brake Pulsation Questions

According to GM in technical bulletin #00-05-22-002 to its dealers, GM says:
“Brake rotors should only be turned when one of the following rotor surface conditions exist: severe scoring with depth in excess of 1.5 mm or 0.060 inch, pulsation from excessive lateral runout of more than .080 mm or .003 inch, thickness variation in excess of 0.025 mm or 0.001 inch, or excessive corrosion on rotor braking surfaces.”
Lug nut torque is also extremely important. Under-torquing only a single lug nut may create as much as 0.003-inch of lateral runout in a rotor!
0 .0015 inch or less of lateral runout is needed on the rotors to prevent pedal pulsation. If runout is excessive, try indexing the rotor on the hub to see if a change in position helps. Tapered steel shims are also available, or use an on-the-car lathe to cut the rotors in place.
  1. What causes runout?
    Rotor runout can be caused by several things: variations in manufacturing tolerances, sloppy resurfacing procedures, a buildup of rust and corrosion between the rotor, hub and wheel, and uneven torque on the lug nuts.

  2. What else can cause pulsation problems besides the rotors?
    Loose wheel bearings will cause the rotor to tilt in the caliper when a load or side thrust is placed on the bearings. Disc brake pistons require lots of fluid volume and pressure to push the pad against the rotor. If loosely adjusted wheel bearings force the pistons into the caliper, the result will be a low or spongy brake pedal.

  3. What exactly is “pulsation” and how does it relate to “warping?”
    If a vehicle equipped with floating or sliding calipers has a slider problem which prevents the caliper housing from moving, runout can cause pulsation. The caliper piston will move in and out as the rotor rotates resulting in fluid movement and pedal pulsation. Likewise, fixed caliper vehicles are sensitive to runout induced pedal pulsations. Fixed calipers have pistons on both sides of the rotor due to the stationary caliper housing. Excessive runout will cause piston movement and can result in pedal pulsation due to the runout.

  4. What else can cause customers to think their rotors are warped?
    Brake roughness is the other component to the equation and it is often misinterpreted and misdiagnosed problem. At the root of brake roughness is a characteristic called Brake Torque Variation (BTV). This can be determined by measuring torque multiple times within one wheel revolution. The brake torque variation is the maximum torque measured within one revolution subtracting the minimum measured.
    If BTV is excessive, the vehicle will start to transmit the BTV back to the driver and generate a comeback. The symptoms are pulsation in the pedal.

  5. What is Disc Thickness Variation?
    People generally equate a high runout value with “warping.” In reality, runout by itself is not a direct or sole generator of pulsation. The characteristic that most directly generates roughness is actually Disc Thickness Variation (DTV). This measurement is the result of measuring the thickness of the rotor surface at multiple spots around the rotor.
    The DTV is the largest (thickest spot) minus the smallest (thinnest spot) of the rotor. This action of thick and thin spots passing through the caliper generates the brake torque variation. When the thick part of the rotor is forcing itself through the caliper, the torque of the brake and the pressure in the caliper rise. When the thin spot passes through, the torque drops and pressure drops. Very small amounts of DTV can create a significant problem. Today, new vehicles are typically built with a thickness variation of less than 0.00078”. Thickness variations in excess of 15 microns (0.00059”) can easily generate driver complaints.
    Always use a dial indicator to verify the amount of runout present in a rotor and hub assembly, both before and after the rotors have been machined. This must be performed even if you are using an on-the-car lathe. By measuring the rotor on the hub, you can also check for play in the wheel bearings, corrosion on the mounting surface and other possible errors. Even if you are putting new rotors on a vehicle, runout should be checked. It doesn’t take much, only about .002 inches on some vehicles, to cause a noticeable pulsation. Also, if you are using a bench lathe, the dial indicator can be used to check to see if you have mounted the rotor or drum properly to the lathe.

  6. “Do I have to measure the runout for every brake job? I don’t have the time!”
    The bigger question is, “Do you have time for comebacks?” A dial gauge is used to measure runout in the rotor and hub assembly.
    The dial gauge is a very robust piece of equipment that can last a lifetime. It is also a good idea to invest in a good magnetic base or vise-grip handle that can be setup quickly.

  7. I drove the vehicle after the brake repair and there was no pulsation problem. What caused the customer to comeback after a few thousand miles with a pulsation problem? Is their braking technique at fault?
    Ninety-eight percent of the time, pulsation complaints are not the fault of the driver. The cause of the DTV/Runout and resulting pulsation is a product of the interaction of the rotor and pads over time and how the caliper interprets the runout. But, the main reason why the customer is back is that the runout was not measured in the hub.
    The vehicles most susceptible to reoccurring pulsation are those that use unitized bearings. Unitized bearings are preloaded and have zero play. No wheel bearing play results in the runout being “seen” by the brake pads with every revolution of the rotor. The resulting high and low spots scrape the brake pads with every revolution of the rotor. This scraping occurs during not only during braking, but also non-braking.
    The long-term result of this scraping is the DTV. Pedal pulsation is the symptom of excessive DTV. The alternating thick and thin spots of the rotor cause the caliper piston to move in and out as the brakes are applied. The caliper piston moves out on the thin spots and in on the thin spots. The piston movement causes brake fluid to move in the hydraulic system and results in corresponding brake pedal movement in the form of a high-speed pedal pulsation.

  8. There is not any runout in the rotor, but the customer is still complaining of a pulsation problem. What could it be the cause?
    The problem might not be the brake rotors, but the pads. If the brake system is used to the intended limits and the brake pads go beyond their operational temperature limit they will deposit brake pad material unevenly on the brake rotor. Pad material build up creates uneven rotor thickness, which gives you the sensation of a “warped” brake rotor.
    Try switching to a more robust brake pad, and clean up the rotors with a light pass on the lathe.

  9. Volcanic Bearings?
    Many bearings will actually have a machined step in the region the wheel studs are installed. This masks the localized “volcanoing” that occurs in the material around the stud. This micron (1 micron = .000039”) level volcanoing will distort the rotor when the clamp load of the wheel is applied.

  10. Will a non-directional finish reduce the chance of a comeback for pulsation problem?
    In theory, a non-directional finish will help to burnish the brake pads more effectively. For some friction materials, the non-directional finish will help to deposit a thin layer of friction material on the rotor’s surfaces.

Cheap Blown Head Gasket Test

What you need:

  • Plastic wrap
  • Rubber band


  1. Place plastic wrap over top of radiator cap opening. Push in slightly, leave a 1-2 inch “U” shape in the plastic.
  2. Wrap rubber band around the plastic and seal it to the radiator neck. Pinch the overflow hose to prevent air leaks.
  3. Disable the ignition system or have someone start the engine for a few seconds.
  4. If the slack you pushed into the plastic wrap pops up, then you more likely have a blown head gasket or cracked head.

Motor Oil Specs

Let’s Talk About…

“Let’s Talk About” is a publication series written by All Euro’s Vice President, Luke. Each installment is a discussion piece that includes professional experience, extensive auto knowledge, and technical information. All in the pursuit of expanding your knowledge and understanding of automotive repair. Read on!

This edition: Motor Oil Specs

Window Regulators

Let’s Talk About…

“Let’s Talk About” is a publication series written by All Euro’s Vice President, Luke. Each installment is a discussion piece that includes professional experience, extensive auto knowledge, and technical information. All in the pursuit of expanding your knowledge and understanding of automotive repair. Read on!

This edition: Window Regulators

Local Training Opportunity Coming Soon!

All European Auto Supply would like to inform you of an upcoming training opportunity in the Metro Detroit area. Interested in boosting your knowledge of 8-speed transmissions? Consider this upcoming training class from an ASE Certified Trainer from ZF Aftermarket.
More details to come.

Problems and Solutions for Everyday Work on the ZF 8HP

This training will take a look at the common problems that technicians encounter everyday in their daily work on the ZF 8HP transmission. ZF Technical Trainer will provide solutions and tips to aid technicians on the daily.

Date: July 11, 2020
Location: Northville, MI



See vehicle applications here:

Tips for Avoiding Brake Problems

The following are some tips and instructions taken from various brake engineers, manufacturers, and installers over the years to help avoid any issues with brakes. For a free guide to prevent and diagnose brake problems just ask a counterman.

The 5 Easiest Ways to Avoid Brake Pulsation:

  1. Clean the hub and rotor mating surfaces until spotless
  2. Use torque wrench by hand to vehicle spec
  3. ALWAYS lube brake pad backing plates, ears, slides, and springs with Plastilube (never use metallic anti-seize on abs cars)
  4. Always “bed” the pads according to pad specs during your test drive
  5. Instruct the daily driver to avoid excessive braking for first 500 miles.

How should I “treat” the pads before installing?

To prevent squealing always lubricate the brake pads backing plate, piston crown, tabs, ears, slides, springs and any metal to metal surface (except friction surfaces) with Plastilube. Do not use anti-seize on cars with abs.

Why should I “Bed or Break in” every brake job?

“Brake pad transfer” is the exchange of glue/binding agents in the friction material which can, when heated and left in contact with the rotor, leave enough deposit to feel like warped rotors. Truly warped rotors are extremely rare. The transfer of binding agents will leave a thick spot on the rotor which feels like warped rotors.

“Bedding” pads by performing specific braking maneuvers is just as important as cleaning the rotor to hub mating surfaces to prevent pulsating rotors and squealing pads.

What is the proper bedding procedure?

If you don’t have factory info from the vehicle manufacturer, we recommend following the procedure from Ate as a generally accepted policy. See below—

  1. Apply light pressure to brakes at approximately 60 mph while slowing to 30 mph ten times. Then allow to cool for 2 minutes driving constant speeds.
  2. Next, apply light pressure to slow from 60 mph to 10 mph five more times. Let cool for 2 minutes.
  3. Repeat Step 1. Then allow to cool before coming to complete stop (Try not to come to complete stop if possible or material transfer may occur which is the main cause for pulsating brakes).

Ate recommends brake pad bedding procedure while safely following all traffic laws.

The proper 10-minute test drive can save you from doing the brakes twice.